Darts
Wedge-shaped stitched pleat on garments. Serves to elaborate the body shape.

Topstitching
Technical term for making decorative seams. For this purpose, one or more seams are placed along fixed edges, e.g. on hems, flaps, etc.

Cut waistband
With a cut waistband, the waistband strip is not sewn on but integrated into the front and back trousers during construction.

Application
Decorative styling element on garments, created by gluing or sewing on small pieces of coloured leather or fabric. Not to be confused with the label!

Bleeding
Refers to the discolouration of coloured textiles when treated wet. The cause can be, for example, an over-dyeing of the fabric or an unsuitable washing treatment.

Flared foot width
If the foot width of a pair of trousers is larger than the knee width, it is called a flared foot width. If the difference is extreme, it is also called 'flare'. The size of the foot width is subject to fashion trends.

Equipment
Collective term for subsequent finishing measures carried out on fabrics, such as stain protection, easy-care, wash-resistant finishing, but also dyeing and bleaching. These finishing measures increase the utility value of the fabric, change the appearance and/or the surface structure of the fabric and thus ultimately increase the value of the garment made from it.

Equipment
Collective term for all trouser ingredients, e.g. buttons, zips, linings and interlinings, irrespective of whether they meet functional or visual requirements. For this reason, all types of decorative stitching on the inside as well as the number, placement and size of pockets are included in the equipment.
Nowadays, the value of a pair of trousers is no longer measured only by the quality of the outer fabric and its workmanship. The materials used and the high-quality workmanship of the 'inside' are also of great sales-promoting importance.

Driver's trousers
Men's trousers with comfortable waistband.

Comfort is either achieved by using elastic materials (rubber inserts, stretchy belts), or the waistband - in order to adapt to the changes in width of the body - is made adjustable by wedge-shaped incisions on the sides, in which case they are also called stretch waistband trousers.

Avant-garde
New fashion realised by particularly bold designers for a particularly open-minded clientele.

Basics
Clothing types and shapes that are intended for everyday use and can be combined in a variety of ways.

Belly sizes
Size group in the HAKA size table. Comprises the clothing sizes 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 57 and 59. Compared to the other clothing sizes, tummy and half tummy sizes are subject to a different proportion in the tummy and buttocks area. They are wider there.

Basics
Clothing types and shapes that are intended for everyday use and can be combined in a variety of ways.

Belly sizes
Size group in the HAKA size table. Comprises the clothing sizes 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 57 and 59. Compared to the other clothing sizes, tummy and half tummy sizes are subject to a different proportion in the tummy and buttocks area. They are wider there.

Cotton
Vegetable textile raw material. Consists of 90% cellulose and is formed from the seed fibres of the subtropical cotton plant. Advantageous properties of cotton are its durability and high tear resistance. It is kind to the skin, does not felt, absorbs moisture and is resistant to heat. It is also easy to clean. However, cotton has the disadvantage that it shrinks easily (countermeasure: sanforising) and tends to crease (can be contained with the easy-care finish).

Bermudas (Bermuda shorts)
Trousers that end just above the knee. Usually with narrower cut legs. Named after the Bermuda Islands.

Bursting strength
Expresses the durability of a fabric under arching pressure until it tears. The strength value is accordingly a measure of the interaction of warp and weft within the fabric construction.

Bicolour
General term for fabrics that are patterned in two colours. The effect is achieved, for example, by using different coloured yarns in warp and weft or by tiny woven patterns.

Bi-elastic fabrics
Fabrics that can be stretched by at least 25% in both length and width. The elastane content in the fabric is usually between 2-4%.

Binding
Describes the way threads are woven into the fabric. Gives the fabrics the cohesion necessary for use, but also determines the surface structure of the fabric. Example: twill weave

Blackwatch
Designation for the classic tartan in the colour combination navy/dark green and black.

Blue Denim
Classic fabric for jeans: Sturdy cotton fabric in warp twill weave with lots of warp effect. Typical: blue warp, white weft.

Waistband dart
Wedge-shaped pleat (dart) below the waistband. The waistband dart gives additional width to the hip or seat area of the finished trousers.

Pleat
The folds are sewn into the front of the trousers at a certain depth below the waistband. Pleats give additional width for the thighs.

Waistband extension
Decorative element at the waistband. The waistband is visibly extended on the outside with outer fabric so that it extends beyond the fly. The waistband extension is fitted with buttonholes or hooks and can be round, square or pointed.

Waistband
Trouser measurement: Actual width of a pair of men's trousers in the waistband area, measured at the finished part.

Casual /Casualwear

Sporty, individual fashion that symbolises the expression and basic attitude of an attitude to life. The garments are of high comfort and rather rustic look. Therefore, according to the conservative view, they should rather be worn in leisure time. According to a more modern conception and with an appropriately cultivated choice of models and fabrics, casual wear is quite suitable for professional life.

Changeant
Fabric consisting of different coloured yarns in warp and weft and thus shimmering in two or more colours depending on the incidence of light or angle of view.

Man-made fibres
Generic term for all fibrous materials produced by chemical-technical processes. Contrast: natural fibres

Dry cleaning
Textiles that cannot be washed are freed from grease-bound dirt and solid dirt particles in dry cleaning. The textiles float in volatile solvents. The cleaning is done in closed systems and completely by machine.

Chinos
Sporty, casual-style trousers made from strong and hard-wearing cotton fabrics. Mainly in light colours.

Cloth
English term for fabric or cloth

Coloured denim
Particularly colourfast denim in fashion colours, in bright colours and in white. There is no risk of bleeding.

Cool Wool
Quality mark of the IWS for summer outerwear fabrics made of pure but light new wool. Characteristics are cool appearance and cool handle as well as temperature balancing and air-permeable properties. Processors of Cool Wool must be Wool Seal licensees.

Cord
Collective term for fabrics with raised longitudinal ribs. It is created by cutting the ribs into velvet. Corduroy is very durable, slightly elastic and relatively insensitive to soiling. Depending on the type of rib, a distinction is made between, for example, wide corduroy, fine corduroy, etc.

Côtelé
French term for corduroy. General term for longitudinal rib fabric.

Piping
Strip of outer fabric, lining fabric or other materials cut to shape and used for serging and delineating edges, hems, slits or pocket openings. The piping appears as a slightly beaded seam.

Piped pockets
Pockets whose entries are delimited by processing one or two pipings.

Fit
Quality characteristic of garments that evaluates the conformity of cut, lines and function with the anatomical needs of the wearer. Also referred to as 'fit' in technical jargon. Fit overview

Flap
A piece of fabric used as a flap on pockets, reinforced with lining, in various shapes and sizes, with or without a buttonhole.

Pepita
Fabric with a small check pattern in twill weave (somewhat frayed block check), typically in black and white. Cf. also: houndstooth.

Easy-care finish
Collective term for all finishing measures that give textiles made of natural fibres the properties 'crease-resistant', 'easy-iron' or 'easy removal of soiling' that are present in synthetic fibres. Care is taken not to impair the durability of the textiles as much as possible.

Care labels for textiles
Also called 'care symbols'. Internationally agreed labelling, not prescribed by law, but required in the interest of the customer and to avoid complaints, for care labelling of textiles concerning washing, ironing, chlorination, dry-cleaning and drying. Care labels have the character of a recommendation, i.e. they are neither a guarantee nor a quality indication. Language-independent symbols facilitate understanding.

Pilling
Knotting caused by rubbing in woven and knitted fabrics.

Polyacrylic
A group of fully synthetic fibres that are stronger than natural fibres, absorb little moisture, are rot-proof and resistant to soot, smoke, solvents, acids, oils and fats. Polyacrylic does not felt and is not attacked by moths.

Polyester
Fully synthetic fibre material that is usually blended with natural fibres for textile products. Properties of polyester are its strength and dimensional stability. Cf. classic blend.

Outer fabric
Fabric that determines the outer appearance of a garment. Main component of a pair of trousers.

Upper availability
Availability of certain face fabrics or their availability through fabric manufacturers. The availability of face fabrics determines the layer and bale planning in cutting and thus the production. Accordingly, the availability of face fabrics entails a certain (mostly deadline-related) dependence of the garment manufacturers on the weavers: no fabric => no trousers.

Order
Customer order (meaning trade customers) with a clothing manufacturer. Orders can be placed during the collection presentation or by telephone, fax, letter or (most recently) e-mail. Orders can be placed with the agent, the buying group or directly with the manufacturer. A distinction is also made between pre-orders and post-orders.

Reorder
Customer orders placed after the start of series production of a season (meaning trade customers of the industry).

Pinstripes
Very fine stripes formed only from two warp threads, arranged at even intervals and standing out clearly against a plain background.

Natural fibres
Generic term for naturally occurring fibres such as cotton, wool and linen.

no(n) iron
Also: no-iron-finish. Unprotected term for a crease-resistant finish for cotton fabrics. Does not refer to the finished garment, but only to the fabric.

Normal sizes
Size group in the HAKA size chart. Refers to sizes 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56 and 58. The values correspond to half the chest circumference, measured in cm.

Made to measure
Production of a garment according to given or determined customer-specific measurements that deviate in whole or in part from the measurements in the size tables.

Mill-washed
Finishing process for sporty-casual fabrics. The outer fabric is pre-washed several times at the manufacturer (weaver) with the aim of preventing further shrinkage and giving the fabric a soft handle, a slight crease effect and a worn look.

Fashion
Style of clothing that - encouraged by the instinct to imitate - has been accepted by the consumer and thus appears simultaneously and dominantly in the street scene. Characteristics of fashion are its short-livedness and rapid change.

Moth (clothes moth)
Night-flying small butterfly whose caterpillar prefers to feed on keratin (contained e.g. in wool). Especially soiled or sweaty clothing is susceptible to moth feeding.

Sample
Abbreviation for sample part. Designates a garment made for trial purposes, which serves as a material, cut or processing test, for trade fair or exhibition purposes or for collection templates.

Mustering
Industry-standard term for the design of a new collection. Includes preparatory fabric selection and shape planning as well as considerations regarding fittings and finishes.

Stretch waistband trousers
Men's trousers with comfortable waistband. Comfort is achieved by using elastic materials (rubber inserts, stretchy belts). At Club-of-Comfort, we speak of comfort waistband.

Decat
Process in the context of textile finishing of fabrics to prevent shrinkage.

Denim
Very durable cotton fabric. See Blue Denim.

Donegal
Sporty fabric named after its home in northwest Ireland. Predominantly cloth-bound, with a light warp and dark finish. The weave has a tweed-like character, is intentionally restless and heavily interspersed with (coloured) burls.

Double piping
Two pipings worked in parallel next to each other. Double piping is primarily used as pocket piping.

Label
English term for 'label'. Commonly used for company emblems visibly sewn onto the outside of clothing. Labels make the special image of branded goods visually recognisable and are a status symbol, especially for young people's clothing.

Body height
Trouser measurement: difference between side length and inseam length.

Linen
Vegetable textile raw material obtained from the fibres of the flax plant. Linen has a cool feel, good thermal conductivity (thus has a cooling effect) and quickly releases moisture. However, linen is also relatively stiff, not very supple, not stretchy and therefore susceptible to creasing.

Logo
Company and product mark (as a word and/or picture mark) that can be woven into linings or sewn on as a label. Indicates the manufacturer and is usually protected by copyright.

Lycra®
Rubber elastic yarn made of pure man-made fibre that gives elasticity to fabrics. Lycra® is used in stretch fabrics for outerwear designed to combine fashion with comfort.

Crosscut seam
Safety seam for high tensile stress. Two pieces of fabric are laid on top of each other so that one of the panels overlaps. The protruding part is placed over the other fabric panel, which is then quilted over the folded-over part. The quilting is usually done with contrasting coloured thread.

Worsted
Woolen yarn with a smooth, even surface used to make high-quality fabrics.

Cashmere, -wool
High-quality wool obtained by combing out or plucking out the downy hair of the cashmere goat every year, which is of a very supple and shiny texture. The price of this wool is very high. Therefore, it is usually mixed with other types of wool and used to produce high-quality clothing fabrics.

Warp and weft
The totality of threads running parallel to each other lengthwise in fabrics is called 'warp'. The transverse threads, i.e. the thread system that holds the fabric together in its width, is called 'weft'.

Classic blend
In professional circles, this is the name for the fabric composition 45% virgin wool and 55% polyester.

Crinkle arm equipment
Part of the easy-care finish. Fabrics are highly refined to improve crease resistance and crease recovery.

Crease
Susceptibility of a fabric to the formation of unwanted folds after deformation.

Twill weave
Common weave for trouser fabrics.

Köpergrat
Diagonal fabric furrow caused by the offset of the weave points of twill weaves. The diagonal effect can be more or less pronounced depending on the type of yarn, weave or setting. The twill ridge running from the bottom left to the top right is called a Z-ridge, the twill ridge running from the bottom right to the top left is called an S-ridge.

Collection
Term in the clothing industry for the grouping of all forms (models) of a specific fashion-, season-, sales- and consumption-dependent occasion. Ex. spring/summer collection, autumn/winter collection.

Collection design
Compilation of a collection according to the aspects: Number of pieces, fashionable topicality, processing characteristics, equipment, pricing as well as individual customer and consumer wishes.

Collection template
The collection is demonstrated at the trade, with shapes and prices explained.

Confection
Term for both the industrial, i.e. series production of garments and the products made in this way. Contrast: made to measure

Clothing sizes
Sizes that are mass-produced and offered according to commercial size tables.

Short (or half) belly sizes
Size group in the HAKA size chart, which includes sizes 49.5, 51.5, 53.5, 55.5 and 57.5.

Short (or half) stepped sizes
Size group in the HAKA size chart containing sizes 22.5, 23.5, 24.5, 25.5, 26.5, 27.5, 28.5 and 29.5. Compared to reduced sizes, the leg length is shortened.

Krumpfen
Anticipation of shrinkage of fabrics. Fabrics can thus be made suitable for tumble drying. Technical term for the finishing process: Krumpfechtmachen or sanforising.

Jeans
Trousers that were originally used as work clothes. They are made of strong cotton fabric (blue denim) and feature accentuated topstitching and rivet decoration. Nowadays, there is a wide variety of models. They vary in leg cut (e.g. carrot shape, tube shape), pocket shape (e.g. five-pocket, swing-pocket) and wash-out shapes (e.g. stone-washed).

Inch
English measure of length. 1 inch = 25.4 mm. Common size measure for jeans.

Indigo
Oldest organic blue natural dye. Due to the cumbersome dyeing technique, the sensitivity to light and the danger of bleeding of the natural indigo, so-called 'indigoid dyes', i.e. synthetic dyes derived directly from indigo, are used today for dyeing jeanswear.

Interior
Equipment that refers to the 'inner life' of a garment.

ISO
Abbreviation for 'International Organization for Standardization', an organisation with the aim of standardising standards and test methods worldwide. The German member is DIN (German Institute for Standardisation).

IWS
Abbreviation for 'International Wool Secretariat'. The IWS represents the interests of wool producers for the protection of quality and the promotion of products made from new wool.

Houndstooth
Two- or multi-coloured small pattern in cloth weave . The checks are connected to each other by small extensions at the corners on each side, which resembles the imprint of a buttercup.

HAKA
Industry-standard abbreviation for the men's and boys' outerwear industry.

Gabardine
Worsted fabric with a dense, distinctively steep twill ridge. The diagonal weave is characteristic.

Garment Washed
Collective term for all forms of washing of textile products that are washed as finished garments at the manufacturer, with or without influence on the fabric colour. Generally, the intention is to give the garment a so-called 'used look' (see fade out-worn look) or else a typical colour character (e.g. stone washed). Contrast: Mill-washed

Buttock width
Trouser measurement: Effective measurement in the seat area of the finished men's trousers.

Buttock lining
Also called crotch lining: Triangular lining part in the seat area, which is adapted to the course of the seat seam.

Glencheck
Fabric in which light and dark threads alternate in warp and weft. This results in stripes and small checks, which in turn are grouped in wide stripes and larger checks (over checks). Black and white is the classic pattern.

Sizes (-tables)
Tabular summary of the clothing size designations according to which garments of all kinds are manufactured and labelled today. For the men's trousers range, a distinction is made between Normal sizes, Slim sizes, Reduced sizes, Short (or half) reduced sizes, Belly sizes and Short (or half) belly sizes.

Basic model
Model that can be used as a starting point for further development or modification of other models due to its proven processing maturity and construction. If the model design allows it, the 'teething troubles' of a new design can be avoided.

Basic cuts
Technically perfected cutting templates that have proven themselves in serial production. Basic cuts do not necessarily reflect the current fashion trend, but can be adapted by modification or further development. Basic patterns are, so to speak, the 'trade secret' of a garment manufacturer.

Quality mark
Word and/or figurative mark symbolising the quality of certain products. The quality characteristics must be objectively measurable. The quality marks are carried by associations or separate communities. Procedure: A large number of manufacturers agree among themselves to comply with certain regulations in the production of the products concerned when using the quality mark and to be inspected by a neutral body in this respect. The 'wool seal', for example, is a quality mark.

Fade Out
Characteristic of fabrics of the jeans direction that are given a worn appearance (used look) by certain washing, dyeing or printing processes. Fade-out fabrics must not be dry cleaned or treated with stain removers. It is recommended that garments be turned inside out before washing and washed at 30 to 40°C with mild detergent. Only spin carefully.

Felt
A fabric usually made from wool by the influence of friction, pressure, moisture and heat, which is formed by the interlocking of the scale structure of animal fibres. Felt is deliberately produced for certain applications (e.g. fleeces). Soap and other alkalis promote felting.

Finish
Final operation in textile finishing to change the look, surface and feel of fabrics. The finish of denim fabrics can, for example, change the surface structure by emerizing, sanding or roughening and thus give them a worn appearance.

Flannel
A collective term for a fabric made of cotton, viscose staple fibres or wool that has been napped or rolled on one or both sides (see fulling). For trousers, worsted flannel is common, a type of flannel made of fine wool with a not too long pile (protruding fibres) in the upper price category.

Dimensional stability
Term for the three-dimensional stability of a garment in its entirety. The shape given to a pair of trousers during production, for example, is permanently retained.

Foot width
Trouser measurement: Total circumference of the trouser leg, measured directly at the hem (leg cuff).

Easy Care
Collective term for care finishes based on synthetic resins. Includes the finish 'non-iron' (property of outerwear that can be worn again after washing without ironing), which in combination with Teflon or Scotchgard can also have stain and soil-repellent properties.

Binding
Tape used to secure the edges of the sewing material against fraying.

Running in
Shrinkage of textiles. Under the influence of moisture or wetness, the length and width dimensions of the fabrics shorten and become slightly thicker. As a rule, this process cannot be reversed. Drying or shrink-fast finishes can, however, prevent shrinkage.

Individual production
Production of a single garment according to the measurements of a special customer or for scheduling reasons. Contrast: ready-to-wear or mass production.

Elastane
A separate type of man-made fibre that is inherently stretchy like rubber. Fabrics with elastane are called stretch (-fabrics).

Tear wool
Recycled wool that has already been used in textile products. Gts.: Virgin wool

Ring Denim
Denim with a characteristic uneven, uneven surface, which is created by the ring spinning process. Modern spinning processes result in a more even, smoother surface.

Ring Club
Ring-spun fabric with thickened threads.

Walking
Term used in textile technology. Is equivalent to 'felting'.

Winter Cotton
Winter cotton fabrics, often with a roughened or sanded surface.

Wool seal
Quality mark protected in more than 120 countries worldwide and subject to licensing, which may only be used for products made of and with new wool.
Carefully monitored quality regulations guarantee compliance with certain defined production and performance standards.

Wool
Natural fibre that may only be obtained from sheep's wool. Wool has a number of favourable properties: it is elastic, shape-retaining, crease-resistant, has a high heat retention capacity and, despite its dry feel, a high moisture absorption. It is also kind to the skin and dirt-repellent. However, wool can become felted, which the so-called anti-felt finish can protect against. (see also shredded wool and virgin wool).

Refinement
Any action taken outside the pure manufacturing process, before or after production, to give fabrics improved properties and multiple utility benefits. Finishing also allows for a more beautiful appearance, a softer or fuller handle and fashionable design options.

Front trouser darts
Today, often instead of pleats, a small dart sewn in below the waistband in the area of the front trousers with a length of 8-12 cm. Front trouser darts give additional width to the hip and seat area of the finished piece.

Front trouser lining
Lining of the front trousers. Serves to stabilise the front trousers and prevents bulging.

Pre-order
Customer orders placed before series production of seasonal collection items starts.

Oversizes
Collective term for all sizes in the size chart that are based on extreme measurements.

Cover
Short for trouser turn-up. Lower hem finish variant for trousers. The width of the turn-up depends on the current fashion.

Reduced sizes
Size group in the HAKA size chart. Comprises the sizes 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 and 29. Compared to normal sizes, compressed in length. (Values correspond to a quarter of the chest circumference measured in cm).

Season
Period of time for which garments are produced that are adapted to the seasons in terms of fashion and equipment. One speaks, for example, of the spring/summer season or the autumn/winter season. The grouping of these items into collections is accordingly referred to as spring/summer collection or autumn/winter collection. In HAKA, 2 seasons are common, in womenswear 4 seasons.

Velvet
Soft fabric with plush-like surface.

Sanforise
Machine finishing process that artificially anticipates shrinkage of textiles to prevent it when the finished garment is later washed.

Hem
Lower finish on all garments and their components, e.g. trouser legs.

Sliding resistance
Feature of a fabric. Prevents warp or weft threads from being displaced horizontally from their original position.

Slim sizes
Size group in the HAKA size table. Comprises the clothing sizes 94, 98, 102, 106 and 110. The values can be determined by adding the number 2 to the chest circumference measured in cm (this refers to a random sample, so no guarantee for all men).

Cut
Short term for pattern construction. Refers to cut design, cut construction, shape, form design and style. For example, one says 'the trousers are well cut'.

Cross-section
Laying out the cutting templates according to cutting regulations with the aim of using as little material as possible.

Cut construction
Drawing construction of cutting templates that serve as a basis for the production of garments. The aim is to develop templates that ensure both smooth processing of the cuts according to these models in production and an optimum fit.

Pure new wool
High-quality natural fibre obtained by shearing live sheep. Gts.: Tear wool

Shot
See warp and weft

Step length
Trouser measurement: Straight-line distance between the crotch and the sole of the foot measured between the legs at the inseam.

Scotchgard TM
Stain and dirt repellent finishing of fabrics. An invisible protective shield is placed around the textile fibre, which allows oily or watery liquids to simply roll off. The liquids can simply be dabbed off with an absorbent cloth or fleece. Textiles protected with Scotchgard remain breathable, are wash-resistant and dry-cleanable.

Side length
Trouser measurement: straight-line distance between the base of the waistband (waist) and the sole of the foot measured at the outer seam.

Serge
Fine high-quality wool qualities in twill weave.

Silhouette
Result of the shaping, the fashionable styling of a garment in terms of overall appearance and lines.

Pocket
Outerwear pocket that is incorporated horizontally or almost horizontally as a front pocket in men's trousers, for example.

Steppes
Technical alternative to the term 'sewing'. Activity designation for the production of decorative seams.

Stone-washed
Finishing process of denim wear to give a worn look. The finished garments are washed together with pumice stones. Depending on the duration of the washing process and the size of the stones, different degrees of wear can be achieved, up to the destruction of seams and edges.

Shock cord
Also called trouser protector tape. Special tape with edge reinforcement on one side that is sewn onto the hem of the trousers from the inside in such a way that it protrudes one to two millimetres and thus absorbs the chafing that acts on the hem when the trousers are worn.

Coating yarn
Fabric made of short-fibred, unkempt raw material that is particularly suitable for sporty outer fabrics.

Stretch
Fabrics that are made stretchy using elastic fibres (such as Lycra® ). Stretch fabrics are crease-resistant. Options for elasticity: transversely elastic, longitudinally elastic and bi-elastic.

Super 100
New wool made from extremely fine yarns. Characteristic are natural finish and smooth flowing drape. Approx. 100 metres of yarn weigh 1 gram.

Super Wash
Pure new wool that has been refined by a special finishing process, making it washable at 30°C.